FYI Accountability and Accounting are interchangeable terms in the AAA
With respect to the (Sybex) question at hand, I have to agree that "A. Accountability" is the best answer. Identification, Authentication, Non-Repudiation, Authorization, Accounting, and Auditing are all steps towards holding someone accountable for their actions.
It may help to think of non-repudiation as a "level" of authentication. Non-repudiation is about using passwords, MFA, PKI, signatures, witnesses, collaborating evidence, etc. to demonstrate that the accused is the person that "committed the crime" -- despite their own testimonial evidence.
That said, I concur with @dcontesti that the Sybex question leaves a bit to desired. The problem being that there are multiple "ultimate goals" that have "identification" as their first step. Therefore, the question is in-a-sense, a form of a post-hoc fallacy.
@denbesten I never cite Wikepedia as it is not a credible source; it is not accepted academically or professionally (at least my employer). One great example of where you see Accountability as the last A in the AAA is in the CISSP Study Third Edition by Eric Conrad, Seth Misenar and Joshua Feldman. Specifically it is found on page 309.
• Authentication: proving an identity claim
• Authorization: actions authenticated subjects are allowed to perform on a system
• Accountability: the ability to audit a system and demonstrate the actions of
subjects. (Conrad et al., 2016).
In my opinion the question is "solid" because in the broad context it is presented the most correct answer is Accounting, and non repudiation is there to make you second guess yourself. Can the answer be non repudiation? Absolutely, but not in this broad context.
Having sat for the exam recently and passing it on my first try, I can tell you that this question is nowhere near the level of difficulty of the questions I encountered on the CISSP exam. It was brutal trying to discern the correct answers on the exam as I found myself in multiple scenarios of "which came first the chicken or the egg?". Additionally, as you know, on the real exam typically there is not a perfect answer there is just a best answer and I feel this silly example question that we are analyzing portrays this concept and the situation you might find yourself in when you take the CISSP exam.
Conrad, E., Misenar, S., Feldman, J., & Simon, B. (2016). Cissp study guide. Syngress.
I do find it interesting that all the commenters seem to be landing on "A", although perhaps via different paths.
@alekos, Thanks for the reference and especially including Conrad, et. al.'s definition for AAA. Despite different wording, it is clear that their intent matches -- record keeping. The only unfortunate bit for Conrad is that the more common definition (1 2 3 4). for "Accountability" means "responsible" so theirs really does need to include the definition.
With respect to Wikipedia and Conrad, I would label them both "credible" (capable of being believed) but not "definitive" (best of its kind) -- which is as good as it gets for a compendium. I concur that one would not cite either as a research reference, but they both make great "informal" references -- especially when referring to potentially obscure terms, such as "post-hoc fallacy" or "whac-a-mole".
As per your statement:
If this question has you all “blown up” I don’t see how you would ever pass the real exam. Simple question, clear answer, with the the detractor being non repudiation.
No one has blown up on this question. I simply said that there are potentially four correct answers. By your own admission you only recently became a CISSP....congrats but please DO NOT come here and belittle others.
We all know the exam can be grueling and if someone comes here asking for advice on a question that is published somewhere, it is highly inappropriate for you or anyone else to suggest that folks could or would not ever pass the real exam...especially on this forum. This forum is meant to encourage folks and allow for healthy discussion.
In life you will learn the only bad question is the one that does not get asked. @TheMax was asking for some clarification.
@TheMax as you continue to study for anything (in this case the CISSP), I encourage you to ask for clarifications like you did with this question.
@alekos Check out CISCO press ( https://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=25471) especially Table 4.1
@amandavanceISC2 Can you flag this question in the study material and ask that the Education folk take a look at the question. With thanks
In closing, please be kind. Healthy discussion on an item is appropriate, but your statement is not.
P.S.: Many of us passed the exam on the first try and many sat the exam when it was 250 question.
PPS: @themax, still nothing from Rob but if you would like to send all questions directly to me, we willl get you answers.
Per our (ISC)² Community Usage guidelines, please keep discussions respectful. I will look into the practice question being discussed and send to Education for review.
Okay, I sent this to Great-grandpa Rob Slade and this is what he said:
> Widgets, Inc., wishes to protect its logo from unauthorized use. Which of the
> following will protect the logo and ensure that others cannot copy and use it?
> A. Patent
> B. Copyright
> C. Trademark
> D. Trade secret
OK, first off I'd say that the wording of this question is poor. None of these will
"ensure" that people "cannot" copy and use it. However, of the options given
(and, of course, that is always the way to approach exam questions), patent,
copyright, and trade secret will do nothing (well, copyright might do *little*) in
this regard. The one that does give you some legal protection is trademark.
Appreciate the reply! I answered the same thing and the answer was returned incorrect.
Reason given: "Copyrights protect pictorial, graphical works which the question specifically pointed out by mentioning desired protection of the logo."
Anyone have extra Advil?