Currently, I have seen this only in Germany:
Imprisonment or a fine for
Do you know any other one?
The main focus of GDPR is to encourage organisations to have good hygiene data protection practices. The emphasis is on the legal liability of data controllers and processors where Article 83 and 84 advocate administrative fines. I believe Germany has taken extraordinary steps where personal liabilities (eg. imprisonment) may implicate DPOs too and discourage anyone willing to step forward to assist their organisation in compliance.
I have seen punishments like imprisonment for the listed illicit activities in other laws such as Computer Misuse Act, Cybersecurity Law.
In Denmark we are still debating if public authorities should be able to receive administrative fine. Very depressing....
It's not in the EU, but here in Singapore the Personal Data Protection Act(PDPA) has got some teeth in the form of a catch all on inspection:
General Offences and Penalties
It is an offence under section 51(3)(b) and (c) of the PDPA to:
An organisation or person that commits an offence under section 51(3)(b) or (c) of the PDPA is liable to:
Also as you might expect there are some pretty far reaching powers of investigation:
If that is the case, there are also Malaysia, South Korea, Philippines...
On the other hand, China may surprise everyone in terms of criminal penalties including imprisonment for those listed activities even though they do not have a law specific to data protection/privacy like the GDPR.
Yes, the more 'Authoritarian' the country is perceived to be the higher likelihood there are criminal penalties covering actions.
Chinese Cyber Security Law covers privacy in the PRC, it's just that it's amalgamated with Critical Information Infrastructure protection(bits of it do read as an homage to GDPR).
Article 63 does actually cover 5-15 days of detention as well as fines for breach of article 27,and you could stretch the 'stealing of online data' and map that to privacy information and that seems to me to be a criminal sanction.