When we talk about quantum computing versus traditional systems, there are lots of examples we can give where a quantum computer provides an advantage. But it's hard to find an example of a problem that a quantum computer can solve, and a traditional computer can't, even if it takes a long time.
Given two pseudo-random number generators, can you tell if they really are separate and independently producing numbers? Or, is one simply a function, somehow, of the other?
Turns out, you can get a quantum computer to answer this question, while a traditional computer never can.
(And it even has security implications, since "randomness" is so important to cryptography, and cryptography is so important to so many other security controls ...)
(Now, if we could only get some quantum computers up and running ...)
Just won myself a 20 hour KEIO University course via Futurelearning - chosen Quantum Computing for self learning purposes. Self study and looking forward to it.